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Building a Work Policy Controller

In an Android for Work deployment, an enterprise needs to maintain control over certain aspects of the employees' devices. The enterprise needs to ensure that work-related information is encrypted and is kept separate from employees' personal data. The enterprise may also need to limit device capabilities, such as whether the device is allowed to use its camera. And the enterprise may require that approved apps provide app restrictions, so the enterprise can turn app capability on or off as needed.

To handle these tasks, an enterprise develops and deploys a Work Policy Controller app. This app is installed on each employee's device. The controller app installed on each employee's device and creates a work user profile, which accesses enterprise apps and data separately from the user's personal account. The controller app also acts as the bridge between the enterprise's management software and the device; the enterprise tells the controller app when it needs to make configuration changes, and the controller app makes the appropriate settings changes for the device and for other apps.

This lesson describes how to develop a Work Policy Controller app for devices in an Android for Work deployment. The lesson describes how to create a work user profile, how to set device policies, and how to apply restrictions to other apps running on the managed profile.

Note: This lesson does not cover the situation where the only profile on the device is the managed profile, under the enterprise's control.

Device Administration Overview

In an Android for Work deployment, the enterprise administrator can set policies to control the behavior of employees' devices and apps. The enterprise administrator sets these policies with software provided by their Enterprise Mobility Management (EMM) provider. The EMM software communicates with a Work Policy Controller on each device. The Work Policy Controller, in turn, manages the settings and behavior of the work user profile on each individual’s device.

Note: A Work Policy Controller is built on the existing model used for device administration applications, as described in Device Administration. In particular, your app needs to create a subclass of DeviceAdminReceiver, as described in that document.

Managed profiles

Users often want to use their personal devices in an enterprise setting. This situation can present enterprises with a dilemma. If the user can use their own device, the enterprise has to worry that confidential information (like employee emails and contacts) are on a device the enterprise does not control.

To address this situation, Android 5.0 (API level 21) allows enterprises to set up a special work user profile using the Managed Profile API. This user profile is called a managed profile, or a work profile in the Android for Work program. If a device has a managed profile for work, the profile's settings are under the control of the enterprise administrator. The administrator can choose which apps are allowed for that profile, and can control just what device features are available to the profile.

Create a Managed Profile

To create a managed profile on a device that already has a personal profile, first check that the device can support a managed profile, by seeing if the device supports the FEATURE_MANAGED_USERS system feature:

PackageManager pm = getPackageManager();
if (!pm.hasSystemFeature(PackageManager.FEATURE_MANAGED_USERS)) {
    // This device does not support native managed profiles!
}

If the device supports managed profiles, create one by sending an intent with an ACTION_PROVISION_MANAGED_PROFILE action. Include the device admin package name as an extra.

Activity provisioningActivity = getActivity();
// You'll need the package name for the WPC app.
String myWPCPackageName = "com.example.myWPCApp";
// Set up the provisioning intent
Intent provisioningIntent =
        new Intent("android.app.action.PROVISION_MANAGED_PROFILE");
intent.putExtra(myWPCPackageName,
        provisioningActivity.getApplicationContext().getPackageName());
if (provisioningIntent.resolveActivity(provisioningActivity.getPackageManager())
         == null) {
    // No handler for intent! Can't provision this device.
    // Show an error message and cancel.
} else {
    // REQUEST_PROVISION_MANAGED_PROFILE is defined
    // to be a suitable request code
    startActivityForResult(provisioningIntent,
            REQUEST_PROVISION_MANAGED_PROFILE);
    provisioningActivity.finish();
}

The system responds to this intent by doing the following:

  • Verifies that the device is encrypted. If it is not, the system prompts the user to encrypt the device before proceeding.
  • Creates a managed profile.
  • Removes non-required applications from the managed profile.
  • Copies the Work Policy Controller application into the managed profile and sets it as the profile owner.

Override onActivityResult() to see whether the provisioning was successful, as shown in the following example code:

@Override
public void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data) {
    // Check if this is the result of the provisioning activity
    if (requestCode == REQUEST_PROVISION_MANAGED_PROFILE) {
        // If provisioning was successful, the result code is 
        // Activity.RESULT_OK
        if (resultCode == Activity.RESULT_OK) {
            // Hurray! Managed profile created and provisioned!
        } else {
            // Boo! Provisioning failed!
        }
        return;
    } else {
        // This is the result of some other activity, call the superclass
        super.onActivityResult(requestCode, resultCode, data);
    }
}

After Creating the Managed Profile

When the profile has been provisioned, the system calls the Work Policy Controller app's DeviceAdminReceiver.onProfileProvisioningComplete() method. Override this callback method to finish enabling the managed profile.

Typically, your DeviceAdminReceiver.onProfileProvisioningComplete() callback implementation would perform these tasks:

  • Verify that the device is complying with the EMM's device policies, as described in Set Up Device Policies
  • Enable any system applications that the administrator chooses to make available within the managed profile, using DevicePolicyManager.enableSystemApp()
  • If the device uses Google Play for Work, add the Google account to the managed profile with AccountManager.addAccount(), so administrators can install applications to the device

Once you have completed these tasks, call the device policy manager's setProfileEnabled() method to activate the managed profile:

// Get the device policy manager
DevicePolicyManager myDevicePolicyMgr =
        (DevicePolicyManager) getSystemService(Context.DEVICE_POLICY_SERVICE);
ComponentName componentName = myDeviceAdminReceiver.getComponentName(this);
// Set the name for the newly created managed profile.
myDevicePolicyMgr.setProfileName(componentName, "My New Managed Profile");
// ...and enable the profile
manager.setProfileEnabled(componentName);

Set Up Device Policies

The Work Policy Controller app is responsible for applying the enterprise's device policies. For example, a particular enterprise might require that all devices become locked after a certain number of failed attempts to enter the device password. The controller app queries the EMM to find out what the current policies are, then uses the Device Administration API to apply those policies.

For information on how to apply device policies, see the Device Administration guide.

Apply App Restrictions

Enterprise environments may require that approved apps implement apps implement security or feature restrictions. App developers must implement these restrictions and declare them for use by enterprise administrators, as described in Implementing App Restrictions. The Work Policy Controller receives restriction changes from the enterprise administrator, and forwards those restriction changes to the apps.

For example, a particular news app might have a restriction setting that controls whether the app is allowed to download videos over a cellular network. When the EMM wants to disable cellular downloads, it sends a notification to the controller app. The controller app, in turn, notifies the news app that the restriction setting has changed.

Note: This document covers how the Work Policy Controller app changes the restriction settings for the other apps on the managed profile. Details on how the Work Policy Controller app communicates with the EMM are out of scope for this document.

To change an app's restrictions, call the DevicePolicyManager.setApplicationRestrictions() method. This method is passed three parameters: the controller app's DeviceAdminReceiver, the package name of the app whose restrictions are being changed, and a Bundle that contains the restrictions you want to set.

For example, suppose there's an app on the managed profile with the package name "com.example.newsfetcher". This app has a single boolean restriction that can be configured, with the key "downloadByCellular". If this restriction is set to false, the newsfetcher app is not allowed to download data through a cellular network; it must use a Wi-Fi network instead.

If your Work Policy Controller app needs to turn off cellular downloads, it would first fetch the device policy service object, as described above. It then assembles a restrictions bundle and passes this bundle to setApplicationRestrictions():

// Fetch the DevicePolicyManager
DevicePolicyManager myDevicePolicyMgr =
        (DevicePolicyManager) thisActivity
                .getSystemService(Context.DEVICE_POLICY_SERVICE);
// Set up the restrictions bundle
bundle restrictionsBundle = new Bundle();
restrictionsBundle.putBoolean("downloadByCellular", false);
// Pass the restrictions to the policy manager. Assume the WPC app
// already has a DeviceAdminReceiver defined (myDeviceAdminReceiver).
myDevicePolicyMgr.setApplicationRestrictions(
        myDeviceAdminReceiver, "com.example.newsfetcher", restrictionsBundle);

Note: The device policy service conveys the restrictions change to the app you name. However, it is up to that app to actually implement the restriction. For example, in this case, the app would be responsible for disabling its ability to use cellular networks for video downloads. Setting the restriction does not cause the system to enforce this restriction on the app. For more information, see Implementing App Restrictions.